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Below is a selection of reference ranges for various haematological and biochemical investigations. Always consult with your local laboratory, as ranges differ between labs. This page is intended for educational purposes only and should never be used for clinical decision making.


Full blood count¹

Haemoglobin (Hb):

  • ♂ 130 – 180 g/​L
  • ♀ 115 – 165 g/​L

White cell count (WCC):

  • Total: 3.6 – 11.0 x 109/L
  • Neutrophils: 1.8 – 7.5 x 109/L
  • Lymphocytes: 1.0 – 4.0 x 109/L
  • Monocytes: 0.2 – 0.8 x 109/L
  • Eosinophils: 0.1 – 0.4 x 109/L
  • Basophils: 0.02 – 0.10 x 109/L

Platelet count: 140 – 400 x109/L

Red cell count (RCC):

  • ♂ 4.5 – 6.5 x 109/L
  • ♀ 3.8 – 5.8 x 109​​​​​​​/L

Haematocrit:

  • ♂ 0.40 – 0.54 L/​L
  • ♀ 0.37 – 0.47 L/​L

Mean cell volume (MCV): 80 – 100 fL

Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH): 27 – 32 pg/cell

Reticulocyte count: 0.2 – 2%


Coagulation¹

Prothrombin time (PT): 10 – 14 seconds

Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT): 24 – 37 second

Fibrinogen: 1.50 – 4.50 g/L

D-dimer: < 500 ng/mL


Haematinics¹

Ferritin:

  • ♂ 25 – 350 ng/mL
  • ♀ 10 – 300 ng/mL

Vitamin B12: 180 – 1000 pg/mL

Folate: > 4.0 ng/mL

Total serum iron:

  • ♂ 11.6 – 35.0 μmol/​L
  • ♀ 4.6 – 30.4 μmol/​L

Transferrin: 2.0 – 3.6 g/L

Transferrin saturation: 20 – 50%

Total iron binding capacity (TIBC): 45 – 81 μmol/​L

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR):

  • ♂ ≤ 49 years: 1 – 7
  • ♂ ≥ 50 years: 2 – 10
  • ♀ ≤ 49 years: 3 – 9
  • ♀ ≥ 50 years: 5 – 15

Biochemistry ¹

Urea & electrolytes (U&Es)

Na+: 133–146 mmol/L

K+: 3.5–5.3 mmol/L

Ca2+(adjusted): 2.2-2.6 mmol/L

Mg2+: 0.7–1.0 mmol/L

Chloride: 98-106 mmol/L

Urea: 2.5 – 7.8 mmol/L

Creatinine:

  • ♂ 59–104 μmol/L
  • ♀ 45–84 μmol/ L

Liver function tests (LFTs)

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): 30–130 U/L

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT):

  • ♂ <41 U/L
  • ♀<33 U/L

Bilirubin: <21 μmol/L

GGT:

  • ♂ <60 U/L
  • ♀<40 U/L

Albumin: 35–50 g/L

Inflammatory markers

CRP: < 5mg/L

Arterial blood gas results

pH: 7.35 – 7.45

pO2: 11 – 13 kPa (82.5 – 97.5 mmHg)

pCO2: 4.7 – 6.0 kPa (35.2 – 45 mmHg)

HCO3: 22 – 26 mmol/L

Base excess: (-2 to +2 mmol/L)

Metabolic tests

Serum ketones: < 0.6 mmol/L

Fasting blood glucose: 4.0 to 6.0 mmol/L

Postprandial (2 hours after eating): up to 7.8 mmol/L

HbA1c: < 42 mmol/mol (6.0%)

Cholesterol: < 5 mmol/L

Triglyceride: 0.55–1.90 mmol/L

LDL: < 3mmol/L

HDL: > 1 mmol/L

Cholesterol/HDL: < 4

Endocrinology

TSH: 0.4–4.0 mU/L²

Free T4: 9 – 24 pmol/L

Free T3: 3.5 – 7.8 pmol/L

Parathyroid hormone: 10 – 65 ng/L

Growth hormone (random):

  • ♂< 5 ng/mL
  • ♀< 10 ng/mL

Cortisol (random): 137 – 429 nmol/L

Testosterone:

  • Male <50: 10-45 nmol/L
  • Male >50: 6.2-26 nmol/L

Triglyceride: 0.55–1.90 mmol/L

LDL: < 3mmol/L

HDL: > 1 mmol/L

Cholesterol/HDL: < 4

Other biochemistry tests

Serum total protein: 60 – 78 g/L
Troponin T: < 0.01 µg/L

Creatine kinase (CK):

  • ♂ 40–320 U/L
  • ♀ 25–200 U/L

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH): 240–480 U/L

Lactate (plasma): 0.5 – 2.2 mmol/L

Urate:

  • ♂ 200–430 μmol/L
  • ♀ 140–360 μmol/L

Amylase: 28–100 U/dL

Ammonia: 10 – 35 μmol/L

NT-proBNP:

  • < 75 years: < 125 pg/mL
  • > 75 years: < 450 pg/mL

Copper: 70 – 150 μg/dL

Ceruloplasmin: 15 – 60 μmol/L

Vitamin D: > 500 nmol/L

Serum osmolality: 275 – 295 mOsmol/kg

24h urine osmolality: 500 – 800 mOsm/kg

Random urine osmolality: 300 – 900 mOsm/kg

12h fluid restricted urine osmolality: > 850 mOsm/kg

24h urine sodium (Na+): 100 – 260 mmol/24h

24h urine potassium (K+): 25 – 100 mmol/24h

24h urine total protein: < 100 mg/24h

Urine pH (random): 5 – 7


Tumour markers

Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (bHCG): < 5 mU/mL

Alpha Fetoprotein: < 44 ng/mL

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA): < 4.0 ng/mL

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA):

  • Non-smokers at 50 years: < 3.6 μg/L
  • Non-smokers at 70 years: < 4.1 μg/L
  • Smokers: < 5 μg/L

CA-125: < 35 U/mL

CA19-9: < 40 U/mL


Immunology

Anti-SS-A (La):

  • Negative: < 3 U/mL
  • Positive: > 4 U/mL

Anti-Streptolysin O Titre (ASOT):

  • Pre-school Age: < 100
  • School Age: < 250
  • Adults: < 125

Rheumatoid Factor (RF):

  • Negative: < 20 U/mL
  • Positive: > 30 U/mL

Anti-Mitochondrial Antibodies (AMA):

  • Negative: < 10 U/mL
  • Positive: > 10 U/mL

Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (p-ANCA):

  • Negative: < 5 U/mL
  • Positive: > 5 U/mL

Anti-Histone Antibodies:

  • Negative: < 25 U/mL
  • Positive: > 25 U/mL

IgA: 110 – 560 mg/dL

IgD: 0.5 – 3.0 mg/dL

IgE: 0.01 – 0.04 mg/dL

IgG: 800 – 1800 mg/dL

IgM: 54 – 200 mg/d

Anti-ds-DNA:

  • Negative: < 40 U/mL
  • Positive: > 60 U/mL

Anti-ss-DNA:

  • Negative: < 8 U/mL
  • Positive: > 10 U/mL

Cytoplasmic Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (c-ANCA):

  • Negative: < 20 U/mL
  • Positive: > 30 U/mL

Anti-SS-A (Ro):

  • Negative: < 15 U/mL
  • Positive: > 25 U/mL

Lumbar puncture results

Appearance: clear and colourless

White blood cells (WBC): 0 – 5 cells/µL

  • No neutrophils present, primarily lymphocytes
  • Normal cell counts do not rule out meningitis or any other pathology

Red blood cells (RBC): 0 – 10/mm³

Protein: 0.15 – 0.45 g/L (or <1% of the serum protein concentration)

Glucose: 2.8 – 4.2 mmol/L (or ≥ 60% plasma glucose concentration)

Opening pressure: 10 – 20 cm H2O


References

  1. East Sussex Healthcare Laboratory.
  2. British Thyroid Foundation. Thyroid function tests. Available from: [LINK]
  3. Diabetes UK. Blood sugar level ranges. Available from: [LINK]

 

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