Endocrinology Quiz

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Endocrinology quiz

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Question 1
Which of the following are common symptoms of hyperthyroidism?
A
Weight gain
B
Weight loss
C
Heat intolerance
D
Diarrhoea
E
Urinary frequency
F
Tremor
Question 1 Explanation: 
Hyperthyroidism can present with a wide array of symptoms and these often differ considerably between patients. However symptoms such as weight loss, tremor, heat intolerance and diarrhoea are quite common.
Question 2
Which of the following are causes of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus?
A
Sheehan's syndrome
B
Post obstructive uropathy
C
Mutations in vasopressin gene
D
Amyloidosis
E
Mutations in the vasopressin (ADH) receptor gene
F
Lithium
G
Atenolol
Question 2 Explanation: 
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus involves the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to vasopressin (ADH). Anything which impairs the kidney's ability to respond to ADH has the potential to cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Question 3
What is the most common cause of Cushing's syndrome?
A
Glucocorticoid treatment (iatrogenic)
B
Ectopic ACTH production
C
Adrenal adenoma
D
Pituitary adenoma
Question 3 Explanation: 
The most common cause of Cushing's syndrome is the long term use of glucocorticoid treatments (steroids). These treatments are commonly used to suppress inflammation in many diseases. If these treatments are used long term they can result in the development of Cushing's syndrome. As a result, most steroid treatments are only given for short durations with the smallest dose possible.
Question 4
Which of the following statements best describes diabetes insipidus?
A
Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterised by the passage of small volumes of concentrated urine
B
Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterised by the passage of large volumes of concentrated urine
C
Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterised by the passage of small volumes of dilute urine
D
Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterised by the passage of large volumes of dilute urine
Question 4 Explanation: 
Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterised by the passage of large volumes (>3L/24hrs) of dilute urine (osmolality <300 mOsmol/Kg).
Question 5
Which one of the following statements best defines dipsogenic diabetes insipidus?
A
Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect or damage to the pituitary stalk causing malfunction of the hunger mechanism.
B
Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect or damage to the pituitary stalk causing malfunction of the thirst mechanism.
C
Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect or damage to the pituitary gland causing malfunction of the thirst mechanism.
D
Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect or damage to the hypothalamus causing malfunction of the thirst mechanism.
Question 5 Explanation: 
Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect or damage to the hypothalamus causing malfunction of the thirst mechanism. As a result, the individual is excessively thirsty regardless of their fluid status. The individual, therefore, consumes large volumes of fluid which suppresses the secretion of vasopressin and increases urine output.
Question 6
Which of the following investigations is the gold standard for diagnosing acromegaly?
A
Growth hormone releasing hormone measurement
B
Serum IGF1 measurement
C
Oral glucose tolerance test + Growth hormone measurement
D
Growth hormone measurement
Question 6 Explanation: 
Serum IGF 1 measurement is useful to screen for acromegaly however is not ideal for diagnosis. Measuring growth hormone alone is not useful as it is secreted in a pulsatile matter therefore levels vary greatly throughout the day. The oral glucose tolerance test combined with growth hormone measurement is the ideal combination of investigations to make the diagnosis.
Question 7
Which age group does acromegaly most commonly affect?
A
25-40 years
B
10-25 years
C
30-50 years
D
55-70 years
Question 7 Explanation: 
Most who develop acromegaly are between 30-50 years old. Acromegaly would not develop in young children as their growth plates have not yet fused, so they would develop gigantism instead.
Question 8
Which one of the following hormones binds to the pituitary and stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)?
A
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
B
Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)
C
Corticotropic releasing hormone (CRH)
Question 8 Explanation: 
1. The hypothalamus secretes GnRH 2. GnRH travels down to the anterior pituitary gland 3. It binds to receptors in the pituitary gland 4. This causes release of LH and FSH
Question 9
Which of the following hormones are stored in the posterior pituitary gland?
A
Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone)
B
Oxytocin
C
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
D
Prolactin
E
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
F
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
G
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
H
Growth hormone (GH)
Question 9 Explanation: 
The posterior pituitary gland is responsible for storing oxytocin and vasopressin.
Question 10
Which of the following are correct regarding the effects of increased levels of growth hormone in acromegaly?
A
Increased levels of growth hormone stimulate increased production of insulin like growth factor one (IGF1) from the adrenal glands
B
Increased levels of growth hormone stimulate increased production of insulin like growth factor one (IGF1) from the liver
C
Increased levels of growth hormone stimulate increased production of vasopressin from the adrenal glands
D
Increased levels of growth hormone stimulate increased production of vasopressin from the liver
Question 10 Explanation: 
The increased levels of growth hormone stimulate overproduction of IGF1 from the liver. IGF1 stimulates overgrowth of tissues and alters blood glucose / lipid metabolism.
Question 11
What is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism?
A
Grave's disease
B
Toxic multinodular goitre
C
Toxic thyroid adenoma
D
Thyroiditis
Question 12
Which of the following statements correctly describes the pathophysiology of Cushing's disease?
A
Cushing’s disease results from a benign adrenal adenoma secreting excess ACTH. High levels of ACTH in turn cause increased production of cortisol from the adrenal cortex.
B
Cushing’s disease results from a benign pituitary adenoma secreting excess ACTH. High levels of ACTH in turn causes increased production of cortisol from the adrenal cortex.
C
Cushing’s disease results from a benign adrenal adenoma secreting excess levels of cortisol.
D
Cushing’s disease results from a benign pituitary adenoma secreting excess levels of cortisol.
Question 13
Which one of the following is acromegaly caused by?
A
Overproduction of growth hormone (GH)
B
Overproduction of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)
C
Overproduction of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
D
Overproduction of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone)
Question 13 Explanation: 
Acromegaly occurs as a result of overproduction of growth hormone. The increased levels of this hormone causes increased proliferation of a number of tissues which results in the characteristic features of acromegaly.
Question 14
Which of the following is the underlying problem in neurogenic diabetes insipidus?
A
Lack of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone)
B
Lack of oxytocin
C
Lack of prolactin
D
Overproduction of prolactin
E
Overproduction of oxytocin
F
Overproduction of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone)
Question 14 Explanation: 
In neurogenic diabetes insipidus the underlying pathology involves the lack of vasopressin production by the posterior pituitary.
Question 15
Which of the following statements best describes Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
A
Iodine deficiency
B
Inflammation of the thyroid gland as the result of a virus. The disease is often preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection.
C
A destructive autoimmune disease caused by auto-reactive antibodies against thyroglobulin.
Question 16
Which of the following are common symptoms of hypothyroidism?
A
Oily skin
B
Excessive hair growth
C
Hair loss
D
Weight gain
E
Hyporeflexia
F
Dry skin
G
Weight loss
Question 17
Which one of the following statements is true regarding the prevalence of acromegaly?
A
Acromegaly affects twice as many men than it does women
B
Acromegaly affects twice as many women than men
C
Acromegaly effects a similar number of men and women
Question 17 Explanation: 
The prevalence of acromegaly is equally distributed between sexes.
Question 18
Which of the following are not causes of neurogenic diabetes insipidus?
A
Pituitary adenoma
B
Mutatations in the vasopressin (ADH) receptor gene
C
Polycystic kidney disease
D
Trauma
E
Meningitis
F
Mutatations in the vasopressin gene
G
Sheehan's syndrome
Question 18 Explanation: 
Anything which affects the pituitary and its production of vasopressin can ultimately cause neurogenic diabetes insipidus. Mutations in the ADH receptor gene and polycystic kidneys are both causes of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Question 19
In males which hormone stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone?
A
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
B
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Question 20
Which one of the following statements describes the underlying pathology of Grave's disease?
A
Consumption of ground beef which has been contaminated with thyroid tissue. The thyroid tissue contains metabolically active thyroid hormones which causes hyperthyroidism.
B
Inflammation of the thyroid gland due to lymphocytic infiltration causes the stored thyroid hormones to be released into the circulation leading to hyperthyroidism.
C
An autoimmune disease directed against thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors. The autoantibodies stimulate the TSH receptors causing increased T3 and T4 production.
D
A benign tumour of the thyroid gland which produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormones.
Question 21
Which of the following are symptoms of acromegaly?
A
Increased finger ring size
B
Excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis)
C
Paresthesia and weakness in the hands
D
Deepening voice
E
Abdominal distention
F
Headache
G
Diarrhoea
H
Vomiting
I
Visual changes (double vision, reduced vision, tunnel vision)
J
Widespread rash
Question 21 Explanation: 
The symptoms of acromegaly can manifest in many different and seemingly unrelated ways. As a result, patients initially often don't realise the link between their symptoms
Question 22
Which of the following are symptoms of Addison's disease?
A
Hyperpigmentation
B
Striae
C
Weight gain
D
Postural hypotension
E
Fatigue
F
Weight loss
G
Moon face
H
Diplopia
Question 22 Explanation: 
The lack of cortisol results in significant weight loss in the majority of patients. Patients often feel very unwell and lethargic. Some patients also exhibit hyperpigmentation of their skin (often mistaken as a "healthy" tan). Some patients also experience postural hypotension due to the lack of aldosterone.
Question 23
Which of the following statements best describes Cushing's syndrome?
A
Cushing’s syndrome refers to a disease process caused by abnormally high levels of aldosterone
B
Cushing’s syndrome refers to a disease process caused by abnormally high levels of cortisol
C
Cushing’s syndrome refers to a disease process caused by abnormally low levels of aldosterone
D
Cushing’s syndrome refers to a disease process caused by abnormally low levels of cortisol
Question 23 Explanation: 
Cushing's syndrome occurs as a result of an individual having abnormally high levels of cortisol. This can be due to a number of different causes.
Question 24
In regard to the investigation of hyperthyroidism, which one of the following antibodies is specific to Grave's disease?
A
Thyroid peroxidase antibody
B
TSH receptor antibodies
C
Thyroglobulin antibody
Question 24 Explanation: 
TSH receptor antibodies are highly specific for Grave's disease. The other two antibodies can be found in both Grave's and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Question 25
Which of the following causes of Cushing's syndrome does the phrase "Cushing's disease" specifically refer to?
A
Iatrogenic
B
Adrenal adenoma
C
Ectopic ACTH production
D
Pituitary adenoma
Question 25 Explanation: 
Cushing's disease refers specifically to Cushing's syndrome occurring as a result of a pituitary adenoma.
Question 26
Which of the following hormones are produced by the adrenal cortex?
A
Epinephrine (adrenaline)
B
Cortisol
C
Aldosterone
D
5-DHEA
E
Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
Question 26 Explanation: 
The adrenal cortex produces cortisol, aldosterone and weak androgens such as 5-DHEA. Adrenaline and noradrenaline are instead produced by the adrenal medulla.
Question 27
Which one of the following statements best describes an Addisonian crisis?
A
Severe adrenal insufficiency resulting in dangerously low serum testosterone levels
B
Dangerously high levels of testosterone
C
Dangerously high serum cortisol levels
D
Severe adrenal insufficiency resulting in dangerously low serum cortisol levels
Question 28
Which of the following hormones are produced in the anterior pituitary gland?
A
Growth hormone (GH)
B
Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone)
C
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
D
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
E
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
F
Prolactin
G
Oxytocin
H
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
Question 28 Explanation: 
The anterior pituitary is responsible for producing a large number of different hormones. Each of these hormones is produced by a subset of specialised cells within the anterior pituitary.
Question 29
What is the most common cause for the overproduction of growth hormone in acromegaly?
A
Hyperplasia of the pituitary stalk
B
Hypothalamic lesion
C
Pituitary adenoma
D
Pituitary lesion
Question 29 Explanation: 
In around 99% of cases, acromegaly is caused by a pituitary adenoma, specifically overgrowth of the somatotrope cells which are responsible for growth hormone production. In very rare cases acromegaly can be caused by ectopic production of growth hormone by carcinoid tumours.
Question 30
What do Leydig cells produce?
A
Semen
B
Oestrogen
C
Androgen binding globulin
D
Testosterone
Question 31
What is Addison's disease?
A
Addison's disease involves the overproduction of cortisol and aldosterone by the adrenal cortex.
B
Addison's disease involves the underproduction of androgens by the adrenal medulla.
C
Addison's disease involves the overproduction of androgens by the adrenal medulla.
D
Addison’s disease is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.
Question 32
Which of the following are signs of acromegaly?
A
Decrease in tongue size (microglossia)
B
Enlargement of feet
C
Oily skin
D
Enlargement of the hands and fingers
E
Increased jaw prominence
F
Enlargement of tongue (macroglossia)
G
Decrease in foot size
H
Prominent supraorbital ridge
I
Crowded teeth
J
Visual field defects (e.g. bi-temporal hemianopia)
Question 32 Explanation: 
The signs of acromegaly can be very obvious if the disease has been active for a significant amount of time. The changes in facial features and voice can be very disturbing for the patient as these are most often irreversible.
Question 33
Which of the following statements regarding Cushing's syndrome is correct?
A
Women are more likely to develop Cushing's syndrome
B
Men are more likely to develop Cushing's syndrome
C
The incidence of Cushing's syndrome is distributed equally between sexes
Question 34
What of the following statements best describes a toxic thyroid adenoma?
A
An autoimmune disease directed against thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors. The autoantibodies stimulate the TSH receptors causing increased T3 and T4 production
B
Inflammation of the thyroid gland due to lymphocytic infiltration causing stored thyroid hormones to be released into the circulation leading to hyperthyroidism.
C
A malignant tumour of the thyroid gland which produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormones. These arise from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland.
D
A benign tumour of the thyroid gland which produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormones. These arise from the follicular cells of the thyroid.
Question 35
Which is a more sensitive measure of thyroid function?
A
Free T3
B
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
C
Free T4
Question 35 Explanation: 
The adequate amount of free T3 and T4 in the blood varies significantly between patients. As a result, TSH provides a sensitive indicator of whether a patient's individual thyroid hormone levels are adequate for them. If a patient has the correct amount of T3 & T4, their TSH value will be normal. However, if the TSH is high or low it suggests that the level of thyroid hormones is not currently at the correct level for that patient. TSH is, therefore, an incredibly useful indicator when a patient has hypothyroidism and requires thyroxine. By monitoring the TSH value you can adjust the dose until TSH normalises, at which point you can be confident you are providing the patient with the correct amount of thyroid hormones.
Question 36
Which one of the following is the main function of aldosterone?
A
Increase in blood volume
B
Decrease in blood volume
Question 36 Explanation: 
Aldosterone causes reabsorption of sodium and water as well as causing excretion of potassium. This results in an increase in blood volume.
Question 37
Which of the following is not a symptom of Cushing's syndrome?
A
Weight gain
B
Stretch marks
C
Increased pigmentation of skin
D
Acne
E
Easy bruising
Question 37 Explanation: 
Increased pigmentation of skin is not a symptom of Cushing's syndrome. Hyperpigmentation is associated with Addison's disease.
Question 38
Which of the following are Sertoli cells responsible for producing?
A
Androgen binding globulin (ABG)
B
Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)
C
Testosterone
D
Oestrogen
Question 39
Which of the following are causes of Addison's disease?
A
Adrenoleukodystrophy
B
Pyelonephritis
C
Tuberculosis
D
Autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex
Question 40
Which of the following does the adrenal cortex produce?
A
Cortisol
B
Noradrenaline
C
Aldosterone
D
Adrenaline
Question 40 Explanation: 
The adrenal cortex is responsible for the production of both cortisol and aldosterone. Adrenaline and noradrenaline are produced by the adrenal medulla.
Question 41
In males which hormone stimulates Sertoli cells to produce androgen binding globulin (ABG)?
A
Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)
B
Oxytocin
C
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
D
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Question 41 Explanation: 
FSH stimulates Sertoli cells to produce androgen binding globulin. This substance binds to testosterone and keeps it at high concentrations in the seminiferous tubules within the testes. This is important as high levels are required here for successful spermatogenesis.
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