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Menstrual cycle quiz

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Question 1
At which stage of the uterine cycle does the menstrual phase occur?
A
Days 1-5
B
Days 5-14
C
Days 14-28
Question 1 Explanation: 
The menstrual phase occurs at the very beginning of the uterine cycle. It only occurs if no ovum is fertilised. The process begins with the breakdown of the corpus luteum which therefore ceases to produce progesterone. The loss of progesterone causes vasoconstriction of the spiral arteries supplying the functional layer of the endometrium. As a result it becomes necrotic and is then lost through the vagina causing the 3-5 days of bleeding.
Question 2
Where is gonadotrophin-releasing hormone produced?
A
Anterior pituitary
B
Posterior pituitary
C
Hypothalamus
D
Adrenal glands
Question 3
Where are luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) produced?
A
Hypothalamus
B
Anterior pituitary
C
Posterior pituitary
D
Adrenal glands
Question 4
Which of the following are functions of luteinizing hormone (LH)?
A
Formation and maintenance of the corpus luteum
B
Thinning of the graafian follicles membrane
C
Stimulation of follicle development
D
Stimulation of GnRH production
Question 5
Which of the following symptoms indicate that a women is about to ovulate?
A
Decrease in basal body temperature
B
Increase in basal body temperature
C
Thickening of cervical mucous
D
Thinning of cervical mucous
Question 5 Explanation: 
An increase in a women's basal body temperature occurs due to the LH surge. As a result the rise in body temperature indicates that ovulation is likely to occur in the next 24-48 hours. The cervical mucous also becomes thinner around the time of ovulation to allow easier passage of sperm.
Question 6
Which of the following are effects of increased levels of oestrogen in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle?
A
Hair thinning
B
Thickening of cervical mucous
C
Thinning of cervical mucous
D
Thickening of the endometrium
Question 6 Explanation: 
In the follicular phase oestrogen functions to increases chances of successful fertilisation. As a result in causes the mucous of the cervix to become much thinner allowing easier passage of sperm. It also causes thickening of the endometrium to increases chances of successful implantation of a blastocyst.
Question 7
At which point in the menstrual cycle is a women most fertile?
A
Days 1-5
B
Days 9-16
C
Days 17-21
D
Days 22-28
Question 7 Explanation: 
The most fertile period of the menstrual cycle is from 5 days before ovulation to 1-2 days after. Couples often use this knowledge to increase their chances of conception.
Question 8
At which stage in the uterine cycle does the proliferative phase occur?
A
Days 1-5
B
Days 5-14
C
Days 15-28
Question 8 Explanation: 
The proliferative phase begins immediately after the menstrual phase and involves increased levels of oestrogen driving repair and growth of the functional endometrial layer.
Question 9
In a normal 28 day menstrual cycle when would you expect the LH surge to occur?
A
Days 8-10
B
Days 11-13
C
Days 14-16
D
Days 17-19
Question 9 Explanation: 
The LH surge usually occurs on day 12. This occurs due to oestrogen levels reaching a high level which stimulates large amounts of LH production. The high LH levels cause the membrane of the Graafian follicle to become thin. As a result 24-48 hours after the LH surge ovulation usually occurs due to the rupture of the graafian follicle.
Question 10
Which of the following are functions of progesterone?
A
Inhibition of oestrogen production
B
Stimulation of oestrogen production
C
Initiation of the secretory phase of the endometrium
D
Increase in basal body temperature
E
Inhibition of LH and FSH production
Question 10 Explanation: 
Progesterone is involved in many different processes during the menstrual cycle. It causes increased production of oestrogen and causes the endometrium to become more receptive to implantation of a fertilised ovum. It also inhibits production of LH and FSH via negative feedback.
Question 11
Which of the following symptoms do women commonly experience during the menstrual cycle?
A
Abdominal pain
B
Nausea
C
Irritability
D
Widespread vesicular rash
E
Photophobia
Question 11 Explanation: 
There are a large number of symptoms which women can experience during the menstrual cycle. This is attributed to the flux of the various sex hormones throughout the cycle. Each women is affected differently with symptoms ranging from very mild to incredibly debilitating.
Question 12
Which one of the following is the primary source of progesterone in the later stages of pregnancy?
A
Foetus
B
Endometrium
C
Corpus Luteum
D
Placenta
Question 12 Explanation: 
The corpus luteum is the primary source of progesterone at the start of pregnancy however the corpus luteum breaks down eventually. So from the 8th week of pregnancy the main source of progesterone is the placenta.
Question 13
Which of the following statements are true about menstruation?
A
In a normal 28 day menstrual cycle you would expect menstruation to last approximately 3-5 days.
B
During menstruation the entire endometrium is shed.
C
During menstruation only the functional layer of the endometrium is shed, with the basal layer remaining intact.
D
Absence of menstruation always indicates an active pregnancy .
Question 13 Explanation: 
It is not uncommon for women to miss a period however it doesn't immediately mean a woman is pregnant. It can be due to a large number of other factors such as hormonal imbalances, stress, diet, age, contraception etc. However it's important to be aware of the possibility of pregnancy.
Question 14
At which stage in the uterine cycle does the secretory phase occur?
A
Days 1-5
B
Days 5-14
C
Days 14-28
Question 14 Explanation: 
The secretory phase of the menstrual cycle begins after ovulation when the ruptured graafian follicle develops into the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum produces progesterone which causes the endometrium to begin secreting various substances which make the uterus more receptive to implantation of a fertilised ovum.
Question 15
Which hormone is the corpus luteum responsible for producing?
A
Oestrogen
B
Progesterone
C
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
D
Luteinizing hormone
Question 15 Explanation: 
The corpus luteum produces progesterone which causes the endometrium to become receptive to implantation of a blastocyst and prevents menstruation occurring.
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