Medical Licensing Assessment (MLA) List of Conditions

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Introduction

All medical students in the UK will need to pass the Medical Licensing Assessment (MLA) before being able to join the medical register and work as a doctor. The MLA will consist of two parts:

  • Applied knowledge test (AKT): a 200-question online multiple choice exam using single best answer (SBA) questions
  • Clinical and professional skills assessmentΒ (CPSA): a practical examination (e.g. OSCE) run by medical schools

The medical licensing assessment content map sets out the content which could be tested as part of the MLA, either as part of the AKTΒ orΒ CPSA.Β 

As part of the content map, there is aΒ list of medical conditions which could be tested in the MLA. These medical conditions could be tested in a single best answer (SBA) question in the applied knowledge test or as part of an OSCE station in the clinical and professional skills assessment.

Conditions vs presentations

In the MLA, conditions are defined as “pathophysiological diseases or clinical diagnoses”, whereasΒ presentationsΒ are defined as “signs, symptoms, investigation results and other relevant patient-related issues”.Β 

AΒ condition could cause several presentations. For example,Β lung cancer could cause breathlessness, haemoptysis, weight loss and bone pain.

It is important to be familiar with these conditions before taking the medical licensing assessment. We’ve included an alphabetical list of the conditions below, with relevant links to Geeky Medics articles. We’ve also included a breakdown of conditions listed by areas of clinical practice. This list is based on the General Medical Council’s MLA content map.Β 


List of MLA conditions

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

L

  • Leukaemia
  • Liver failure
  • Lower limb fractures
  • Lower limb soft tissue injury
  • Lower respiratory tract infection
  • Lung cancer
  • Lyme disease
  • Lymphoma

M

N

O

P

R

S

T

U

V

W


Conditions by MLA area of clinical practice

There areΒ 24 areas of clinical practice as part of the UK medical licensing assessment content map. Conditions can be mapped to multiple areas of clinical practice.

For example, anaemia is mapped to six areas of clinical practice: child health, clinical haematology, gastrointestinal, general practice, obstetrics & gynaecology, and perioperative medicine. This reflects how broad anaemia is as a topic and how it is encountered in multiple areas of medicine.Β 

When we look closer at the MLA content map, we can see some conditions frequently appearing across multiple areas of clinical practiceΒ (Figure 1). The top three conditions in the MLA content map areΒ anaemia,Β substance use disorder andΒ cardiac failure.

A graph showing the top 10 most frequent MLA conditions in the UK MLA content map
Figure 1. The top 10 most common conditions in the MLA content map

Below is a list of MLA conditions mapped to each area of clinical practice.Β 

Acute and emergency πŸš‘

Link: Emergency Medicine

  • Acid-base abnormality
  • Acute bronchitis
  • Acute coronary syndromes
  • Acute kidney injury
  • Allergic disorder
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Aortic aneurysm
  • Arrhythmias
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Cardiac failure
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Compartment syndrome
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Dehydration
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Drug overdose
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Epilepsy
  • Epistaxis
  • Extradural haemorrhage
  • Gastrointestinal perforation
  • Haemoglobinopathies
  • Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state
  • Hyperthermia and hypothermia
  • Meningitis
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Necrotising fasciitis
  • Non-accidental injury
  • Pancytopenia
  • Pneumonia
  • Pneumothorax
  • Postpartum haemorrhage
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Raised intracranial pressure
  • Respiratory arrest
  • Respiratory failure
  • Self-harm
  • Sepsis
  • Spinal cord compression
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Spinal fracture
  • Stroke
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage
  • Subdural haemorrhage
  • Substance use disorder
  • Testicular torsion
  • Toxic shock syndrome
  • Transfusion reactions
  • Unstable angina

Cancer β™‹

Link: Oncology

  • Basal cell carcinoma
  • Bladder cancer
  • Brain metastases
  • Breast cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Colorectal tumours
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Gastric cancer
  • Hypercalcaemia of malignancy
  • Leukaemia
  • Lung cancer
  • Lymphoma
  • Malignant melanoma
  • Metastatic disease
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Oesophageal cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Pathological fracture
  • Patient on anti-coagulant therapy
  • Prostate cancer
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Testicular cancer

Cardiovascular πŸ«€

Link: Cardiology

  • Aneurysms, ischaemic limb and occlusions
  • Aortic dissection
  • Aortic valve disease
  • Arterial thrombosis
  • Arterial ulcers
  • Essential or secondary hypertension
  • Gangrene
  • Haemochromatosis
  • Infective endocarditis
  • Intestinal ischaemia
  • Ischaemic heart disease
  • Mitral valve disease
  • Myocarditis
  • Pericardial disease
  • Peripheral vascular disease
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Right heart valve disease
  • Transient ischaemic attacks
  • Vasovagal syncope
  • Venous ulcers

Child health πŸ‘Ά

Link: Paediatrics

  • Anaemia
  • Appendicitis
  • Asthma
  • Atopic dermatitis and eczema
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Biliary atresia
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Bronchiolitis
  • Candidiasis
  • Cellulitis
  • Cerebral palsy and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Coeliac disease
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Constipation
  • Croup
  • Cushing’s syndrome
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Developmental delay
  • Diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • Down’s syndrome
  • Eating disorders
  • Epididymitis and orchitis
  • Epiglottitis
  • Febrile convulsion
  • Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
  • Henoch-Schonlein purpura
  • Hepatitis
  • Hernias
  • Herpes simplex virus
  • Human papilloma virus infection
  • Hypoglycaemia
  • Hyposplenism/splenectomy
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Idiopathic arthritis
  • Impetigo
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Influenza
  • Intestinal obstruction and ileus
  • Intussusception
  • Kawasaki disease
  • Lower respiratory tract infection
  • Malaria
  • Malnutrition
  • Measles
  • Migraine
  • Mumps
  • Muscular dystrophies
  • Obesity
  • Obstructive sleep apnoea
  • Otitis media
  • Peptic ulcer disease and gastritis
  • Periorbital and orbital cellulitis
  • Peripheral nerve injuries/palsies
  • Peritonitis
  • Pyloric stenosis
  • Reactive arthritis
  • Rubella
  • Septic arthritis
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Tension headache
  • Thyrotoxicosis
  • Tonsillitis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Upper respiratory tract infection
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Urticaria
  • Viral exanthema
  • Viral gastroenteritis
  • Visual field defects
  • Volvulus

Clinical haematology 🩸

Link: Haematology

  • Anaemia
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • Epistaxis
  • Haemochromatosis
  • Haemoglobinopathies
  • Haemophilia
  • Hyposplenism/splenectomy
  • Leukaemia
  • Lymphoma
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Myeloproliferative disorders
  • Pancytopenia
  • Pathological fracture
  • Patient on anti-coagulant therapy
  • Patient on anti-platelet therapy
  • Polycythaemia
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Transfusion reactions

Clinical imaging 🩻

Link: Radiology Interpretation

  • Aneurysms, ischaemic limb and occlusions
  • Bladder cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Cardiac failure
  • Colorectal tumours
  • Extradural haemorrhage
  • Intestinal ischaemia
  • Intestinal obstruction and ileus
  • Intussusception
  • Lower limb fractures
  • Lower limb soft tissue injury
  • Lung cancer
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Pathological fracture
  • Placenta praevia
  • Pneumonia
  • Pneumothorax
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Raised intracranial pressure
  • Spinal cord compression
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Spinal fracture
  • Stroke
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage
  • Subdural haemorrhage
  • Surgical site infection
  • Upper limb fractures
  • Upper limb soft tissue injury
  • Volvulus

Dermatology β˜€οΈ

Link: Dermatology

  • Acne vulgaris
  • Arterial ulcers
  • Atopic dermatitis and eczema
  • Basal cell carcinoma
  • Cellulitis
  • Contact dermatitis
  • Cutaneous fungal infection
  • Cutaneous warts
  • Folliculitis
  • Head lice
  • Impetigo
  • Malignant melanoma
  • Pressure sores
  • Psoriasis
  • Scabies
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Urticaria

Ear, nose and throat πŸ‘‚

Link: ENT Surgery

  • Acoustic neuroma
  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
  • Epiglottitis
  • Epistaxis
  • Infectious mononucleosis
  • MΓ©niΓ¨re’s disease
  • Obstructive sleep apnoea
  • Otitis externa
  • Otitis media
  • Rhinosinusitis
  • Tonsillitis

Endocrine and metabolic πŸ’§

Link: Endocrinology

  • Addison’s disease
  • Cushing’s syndrome
  • Diabetes in pregnancy (gestational and preexisting)
  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Diabetic neuropathy
  • Essential or secondary hypertension
  • Hypercalcaemia of malignancy
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Hyperthermia and hypothermia
  • Hypoglycaemia
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Obesity
  • Osteomalacia
  • Osteoporosis
  • Peripheral vascular disease
  • Pituitary tumours
  • Thyroid eye disease
  • Thyroid nodules
  • Thyrotoxicosis

Gastrointestinal including liver 🍺

Link: Gastroenterology

  • Acute cholangitis
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Alcoholic hepatitis
  • Anaemia
  • Anal fissure
  • Appendicitis
  • Ascites
  • Cholecystitis
  • Cirrhosis
  • Coeliac disease
  • Colorectal tumours
  • Constipation
  • Diverticular disease
  • Eating disorders
  • Gallstones and biliary colic
  • Gastric cancer
  • Gastrointestinal perforation
  • Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
  • Haemochromatosis
  • Haemorrhoids
  • Hepatitis
  • Hernias
  • Hiatus hernia
  • Hyposplenism/splenectomy
  • Infectious colitis
  • Infectious mononucleosis
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Liver failure
  • Malabsorption
  • Malnutrition
  • Mesenteric adenitis
  • Necrotising enterocolitis
  • Oesophageal cancer
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Peptic ulcer disease and gastritis
  • Perianal abscesses and fistulae
  • Peritonitis
  • Vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency

General practice and primary healthcare πŸ‘©β€βš•οΈ

  • Acne vulgaris
  • Acute bronchitis
  • Acute stress reaction
  • Allergic disorder
  • Anaemia
  • Anal fissure
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Anxiety disorder: generalised
  • Anxiety, phobias, OCD
  • Arrhythmias
  • Asthma
  • Atopic dermatitis and eczema
  • Atrophic vaginitis
  • Bacterial vaginosis
  • Bell’s palsy
  • Benign eyelid disorders
  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • Breast abscess/ mastitis
  • Bronchiolitis
  • Bursitis
  • Candidiasis
  • Chlamydia
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Constipation
  • Contact dermatitis
  • Croup
  • Crystal arthropathy
  • Cutaneous fungal infection
  • Cutaneous warts
  • Dementias
  • Depression
  • Diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2
  • Disease prevention/screening
  • Diverticular disease
  • Essential or secondary hypertension
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Folliculitis
  • Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
  • Gonorrhoea
  • Haemorrhoids
  • Herpes simplex virus
  • Hiatus hernia
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Impetigo
  • Infectious mononucleosis
  • Influenza
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Lower limb soft tissue injury
  • Lyme disease
  • Measles
  • Menopause
  • Migraine
  • Mumps
  • Obesity
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Otitis externa
  • Otitis media
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Peripheral vascular disease
  • Polymyalgia rheumatica
  • Prostate cancer
  • Psoriasis
  • Radiculopathies
  • Reactive arthritis
  • Rhinosinusitis
  • Substance use disorder
  • Syphilis
  • Tension headache
  • Tonsillitis
  • Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Trigeminal neuralgia
  • Upper limb soft tissue injury
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Urticaria
  • Varicella zoster
  • Varicose veins
  • Vasovagal syncope
  • Venous ulcers
  • Viral exanthema
  • Viral gastroenteritis
  • Whooping cough

Infection 🦠

Link: Infectious Diseases

  • Acute cholangitis
  • Brain abscess
  • Breast abscess/ mastitis
  • Candidiasis
  • Cellulitis
  • Chlamydia
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Covid-19
  • Croup
  • Cutaneous fungal infection
  • Cutaneous warts
  • Encephalitis
  • Epididymitis and orchitis
  • Folliculitis
  • Gangrene
  • Gonorrhoea
  • Head lice
  • Herpes simplex virus
  • Hospital acquired infections
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Human papilloma virus infection
  • Impetigo
  • Infectious colitis
  • Infectious diarrhoea
  • Infectious mononucleosis
  • Infective endocarditis
  • Influenza
  • Lower respiratory tract infection
  • Lyme disease
  • Malaria
  • Measles
  • Meningitis
  • Mumps
  • Necrotising fasciitis
  • Notifiable diseases
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Otitis media
  • Perianal abscesses and fistulae
  • Periorbital and orbital cellulitis
  • Peritonitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Sepsis
  • Septic arthritis
  • Surgical site infection
  • Syphilis
  • Tonsillitis
  • Toxic shock syndrome
  • Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Upper respiratory tract infection
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Varicella zoster
  • Viral exanthema
  • Viral gastroenteritis
  • Viral hepatitides
  • Whooping cough

Medicine of older adult πŸ‘΄

Link: Geriatrics

  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
  • Cardiac failure
  • Delirium
  • Dementias
  • Hyperthermia and hypothermia
  • Lower limb fractures
  • Malnutrition
  • Non-accidental injury
  • Osteoporosis
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Pressure sores
  • Stroke
  • Urinary incontinence

Mental health 🧠

Link: Mental Health

  • Acute stress reaction
  • Alcoholic hepatitis
  • Anxiety disorder: generalised
  • Anxiety disorder: post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Anxiety, phobias, OCD
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Bipolar affective disorder
  • Delirium
  • Dementias
  • Depression
  • Drug overdose
  • Eating disorders
  • Personality disorder
  • Schizophrenia
  • Self-harm
  • Somatisation
  • Substance use disorder
  • Tension headache
  • Wernicke’s encephalopathy

Musculoskeletal 🦴

Links: Rheumatology | Orthopaedic Surgery

  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Bursitis
  • Compartment syndrome
  • Crystal arthropathy
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Idiopathic arthritis
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Lower limb fractures
  • Lower limb soft tissue injury
  • Lyme disease
  • Metastatic disease
  • Non-accidental injury
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Osteomalacia
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Pathological fracture
  • Psoriasis
  • Radiculopathies
  • Reactive arthritis
  • Polymyalgia rheumatica
  • Psoriasis
  • Radiculopathies
  • Reactive arthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Septic arthritis
  • Spinal cord compression
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Spinal fracture
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Upper limb fractures
  • Upper limb soft tissue injury

Neurosciences 🧠

Links: Neurology | Neurosurgery

  • Acoustic neuroma
  • Bell’s palsy
  • Brain abscess
  • Brain metastases
  • Cerebral palsy and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Dementias
  • Diabetic neuropathy
  • Encephalitis
  • Epilepsy
  • Essential tremor
  • Extradural haemorrhage
  • Febrile convulsion
  • Malaria
  • MΓ©niΓ¨re’s disease
  • Meningitis
  • Metastatic disease
  • Migraine
  • Motor neurone disease
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Muscular dystrophies
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Peripheral nerve injuries/palsies
  • Radiculopathies
  • Raised intracranial pressure
  • Spinal cord compression
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Spinal fracture
  • Stroke
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage
  • Subdural haemorrhage
  • Tension headache
  • Transient ischaemic attacks
  • Trigeminal neuralgia
  • Wernicke’s encephalopathy

Obstetrics and gynaecology 🚼

Links: Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Gynaecological Surgery

  • Anaemia
  • Atrophic vaginitis
  • Bacterial vaginosis
  • Cervical cancer
  • Cervical screening (HPV)
  • Chlamydia
  • Cord prolapse
  • Depression
  • Diabetes in pregnancy (gestational and preexisting)
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Endometriosis
  • Epilepsy
  • Essential or secondary hypertension
  • Fibroids
  • Gonorrhoea
  • Menopause
  • Obesity and pregnancy
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Placenta praevia
  • Placental abruption
  • Postpartum haemorrhage
  • Pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension
  • Sepsis
  • Substance use disorder
  • Syphilis
  • Termination of pregnancy
  • Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Varicella zoster
  • Vasa praevia
  • VTE in pregnancy and puerperium

Ophthalmology πŸ‘οΈ

Link: Ophthalmology

  • Acute glaucoma
  • Benign eyelid disorders
  • Blepharitis
  • Cataracts
  • Central retinal arterial occlusion
  • Chronic glaucoma
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Diabetic eye disease
  • Infective keratitis
  • Iritis
  • Macular degeneration
  • Optic neuritis
  • Periorbital and orbital cellulitis
  • Retinal detachment
  • Scleritis
  • Thyroid eye disease
  • Uveitis
  • Visual field defects

Palliative and end of life care πŸ’Š

Link: Palliative care

  • Cardiac failure
  • Metastatic disease
  • Multi-organ dysfunction syndrome

Perioperative medicine and anaesthesia 😴

Link: Anaesthetics

  • Acute kidney injury
  • Anaemia
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Aortic valve disease
  • Arrhythmias
  • Asthma
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Cardiac failure

Renal and urology 🫘

Links: Renal | Urology

  • Acute kidney injury
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • Bladder cancer
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Dehydration
  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Epididymitis and orchitis
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Prostate cancer
  • Testicular cancer
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Urinary tract calculi
  • Urinary tract infection

Respiratory 🫁

Link: Respiratory

  • Acute bronchitis
  • Allergic disorder
  • Asbestos-related lung disease
  • Asthma
  • Asthma COPD overlap syndrome
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Bronchiolitis
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Fibrotic lung disease
  • Influenza
  • Lower respiratory tract infection
  • Lung cancer
  • Metastatic disease
  • Obstructive sleep apnoea
  • Occupational lung disease
  • Pneumonia
  • Pneumothorax
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Respiratory failure
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Upper respiratory tract infection

Sexual health 🧫

Link: Sexual Health

  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhoea
  • Syphilis

Surgery πŸͺ‘

Link: Surgery

  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Anal fissure
  • Aortic aneurysm
  • Aortic dissection
  • Aortic valve disease
  • Appendicitis
  • Colorectal tumours
  • Fibroadenoma
  • Fibroids
  • Gastrointestinal perforation
  • Hernias
  • Intestinal ischaemia
  • Intestinal obstruction and ileus
  • Intussusception
  • Oesophageal cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Perianal abscesses and fistulae
  • Peritonitis
  • Postpartum haemorrhage
  • Surgical site infection
  • Testicular cancer
  • Testicular torsion
  • Varicose veins
  • Volvulus

All areas of clinical practice

  • Adverse drug effects

References

  • General Medical Council. MLA content map. Published in 2021. Available from: [LINK]

 

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